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h1. MOOC: a European view

h2. MOOC: a short history

American universities have focused on new technologies and their use for education since their appearance in the late 90s. Since 2002, with the explosion of the Web technologies,  the dream of a full distance education has started to be a reality. The intention of the universities was twofold: to attract new customers far from their traditional recruitment pools and to compete, not only with others universities, but also with private companies, such as Phoenix U., which organized a classical distance learning with great success. The creation of WGU, a pure online university \[1\] is the best example of this intention. Later, the MIT created the OCW initiative (Open Courseware) \[12\] which exposes an increasing number of teaching documents to the world. In 2006, the Khan academy \[23\], not especially intended towards Higher Education, invited everyone to add his own short video (less than 10 minutes in most cases) to explain any point of interest. The contributors are all volunteers. Neither their qualifications nor their legitimacy are controlled.

More recently, a new concept, MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) \[3\] presented a more ambitious goal. Its aim was to provide a comprehensive education to any public, at world scale, and to deliver an attestation (certification) of completion of study to those who had followed successfully the full course.
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h1. Bibliography

\[1\] [http://www.khanacademy.org]
\[1\] [http://www.wgu.edu/|http://www.wgu.edu/] Western Governors University




\[2\] [http://www.wgu.edu/] Western Governors University

\[32\]  [http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm] MIT OpenCourseware

\[3\] [http://www.khanacademy.org|http://www.khanacademy.org]

\[4\] [http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/online-educational-delivery-models-descriptive-view] «Online Educational Delivery Models: A Descriptive View » P. Hill (2012) Educause Review November/December




\[9\] [http://www.edx.org] edX, consortium Harvard, Berkeley, U. of Texas




\[17\] [http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2012/nov/19/open-online-courses-higher-education?CMP=email] «Why online courses can never totally replace the campus experience » P. McGhee, U. Of East London, The Guardian, 19-11-2012